Nonsupervised learning tools for hierarchical clustering of gene expression data and other clustering approaches are most useful for the discovery of intrinsic biology in patient cohorts and discovery of coincident patterns of gene expression. New therapeutic approaches that modulate the apoptotic pathway are now available and Dr. Please review our privacy policy. However significant challenges remain including developing better methods to predict which patients can be cured with less toxic treatment and which ones will benefit from augmented therapy. Finally, the third distinct cluster of infant cases Figure 8A , blue, bottom right is quite heterogeneous, containing 54 cases, 42 with AML, and 12 with ALL morphology. In total, 53 childhood ALL survivors and 34 controls underwent auxological evaluation, biochemical assay, liver, heart and vascular ultrasound study. Cryns V, Yuan Y.

Bellamy R, Hill AV. This suggests that microarray-based gene expression profiling may provide a viable approach to the front-line diagnosis of pediatric ALL. Wiemels JL, Greaves M. Ann Biol Clin Paris. Net Content is peer reviewed and Cancer. BCL-2 family members and the mitochondria in apoptosis. Expression profiles of acute lymphoblastic and myeloblastic leukemias with ALL-1 rearrangements.

Nachman JB et al. Appropriate statistical methods were applied.

Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Higher frequency of glutathione S-transferase deletions in black children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol.

acute lymphoblastic leukemia case study hesi

A solitary uterine relapse in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia: Persistence of circulating blasts after 1 week of multiagent chemotherapy confers a poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Further refinement depends on assessment of tumor regression measured by morphology lymphoblastiic quantitative MRD detection. Then we demonstrated that the ASNS expression was dependent on the methylation status of the promoter.

Fundus examination revealed grade 3 papilledema, bilateral peripapillary leukemic infiltration, and intraretinal hemorrhages.

Other features associated with high tumor burden, such as hepatosplenomegaly and mediastinal mass, are also associated with a greater risk of relapse. In summary, supervised learning and computer learning algorithms are identifying new genes that may significantly contribute to the refinement of risk classification in acute leukemia and which may be further developed as diagnostic and therapeutic targets.


Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Last, variation in expression profiling can result from a variety of technical issues. Therefore, to minimize these variations it is important to assess the reproducibility of data acquisition throughout an experiment. Finally an optimal system should allow for comparison of lymphobladtic outcomes of similar, or identical patients, treated on different protocols.

Salomoni P, Pandolfi PP. The cellular pharmacology of methotrexate. A total of insertions were recorded, with 82 The class discriminating genes again provide a view into the molecular pathology of these leukemias and a number of testable hypotheses can be generated.

Accumulation of high levels of methotrexate polyglutamates in lymphoblasts from children with hyperdiploid greater than 50 chromosomes B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia ALL is one of the most frequent causes of death from cancer.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia of childhood presenting as aplastic anemia: report of two cases

Clinical features and treatment outcome of childhood T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia according to the apparent maturational stage of T-lineage leukemic blasts: In addition, this approach offers the potential of providing unique insights into the altered biology underlying the growth of the leukemic cells. When VxInsight or PCA was applied to the infant leukemia dataset, we discovered that there were 3 statistically significant, intrinsic biologic groups of infant leukemia and that these intrinsic biologic groups could not simply be predicted by ALL versus AML labels or by the presence or absence of cytogenetic abnormalities involving MLL as these labels were distributed among each of the intrinsic biologic clusters Figure 8 ; see Appendix, page MP Mosquera-Caro et al, unpublished data.

One publication has reported a similar case in an adult where the molecular detection of monoclonality in the BMA was made for both the period of AA and at diagnosis of ALL. In the present genome-wide association study GWASwe explored the genetic basis of sex differences by comparing genotype frequencies between male and female cases in a case-only study to assess effect-modification by sex. Based on a phenotype-to-genotype approach, it is understandable that the first important examples of pharmacogenetics were monogenic, relatively penetrant traits, and molecular biology eventually defined the molecular genetic basis of phenotypic variability.


This study included 75 ALL patients and healthy subjects. It is important to recognize, however, that the lists of leukemia subtype discriminating genes can be quite large, and therefore, many competing interpretations can be proposed for the importance of different groups of differentially expressed genes.

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) | CancerIndex

Testa JR, Bellacosa A. Robak T, Bartkowiak J, Urba? Mutational inactivation of the pro-apoptotic gene BAX confers selective advantage during tumor clonal evolution.

acute lymphoblastic leukemia case study hesi

Expression microarray platforms, either cDNA- or oligonucleotide-based, result in the collection of expression values for a large number of genes, varying from several hundred up to 33, genes depending on the specific microarray platform being used. GraB then piggy-backs into cells via mannosephosphate receptors IGFR2 and enters effective cellular compartments via perforin channels. cxse

acute lymphoblastic leukemia case study hesi

GM may be detected in the serum before the clinical signs of IA acuye, but its sensitivity and specificity are variable. This report presents the CT features of a year-old woman with uterine relapse of T-cell ALL, occurring 11 months after the diagnosis, as a second, unique relapse of disease. In fact, early work on ALL suggests that expression signatures can be identified within specific genetic subtypes of ALL that predict whether a casf will have a high risk of relapsing.